Konstantin Buteyko was born in 1923 in the Ukraine and grew up in a farming community. After becoming a physician, he made an important discovery about human health, one which would lead many seriously afflicted individuals back to good health. Dr. Buteyko's main discovery focused on breathing and the revision of breathing habits in order to reverse the progression of an illness. His holistic, drug-free method became so effective and widespread that it is often reffered by his name: the Buteyko method of breathing. His life was fraught with peril, including the destruction of his laboratory in Siberia and threats on his life. Dr. Buteyko miraculously survived the turmoil and established a clinic in Moscow (Clinica Buteyko Moscow). He lived to see his scientific discovery and applied practices gain worldwide recognition. He died in Moscow in 2003.
Konstantin Buteyko's Early Life
Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko was born in 1923 in Ivanitsa, a small farming community near Kiev. His mother, a schoolteacher, was known to say, "I gave birth to a very odd boy," possibly referring to her son's powerful mind and avid curiosity about every detail of the natural world around him. He was very independent and would spend a great deal of time alone outdoors, closely observing and examining plants, insects, and anything else he encountered. His innate interest in this and his aptitude laid the foundation for his keen scientific insights in the future.
K.P. Buteyko M.D.
Konstantin's father was a mechanic, and his son became adept at this skill as well. When he encountered any kind of mechanism, Konstantin first saw it as nothing more than an arbitrary collection of parts, but when, upon further study, he would see that all the parts should interacted harmoniously as a whole in order to make it run well, he became fascinated. This process led Buteyko to study engineering at the Polytechnic College in Kiev, Ukraine.
In his sophomore year of college, World War II began. This spurred Buteyko to enlist and he volunteered to go the frontlines. During his four years in the war zone, he worked as a driver, mechanic, and a helper in a medical aid party. He repaired all sorts of vehicles, having started the training for this work at the mechanics department of engineering college. Throughout this time, he also came face to face with another type of wartime destruction - human casualties. He was not trained to offer any assistance for this. His frustration at not being able to serve the maimed and wounded caused him to redirect his studies and become a medical doctor. Viewed through his natural analytical perspective, Buteyko beheld the human body as the most superior of all "machines" and so, finding ways to help it operate in the most harmonious and effective way became his new goal.
In 1946, over a year after the end of the war, Konstantin Buteyko enrolled at First Medical Institute in Moscow, Russia. As a student there, he was known as a handsome, young veteran with a sharp intellect, abundant energy, and, always, the highest possible grades. He spent most of his time at the library, or conducting clinical work. Upon graduating from medical school with distinction, he was invited to come on staff by an eminent doctor at one of Moscow's most elite hospitals. His scientific and clinical supervisors, as well as his friends, were convinced that a bright future began to unfold in front of this very talented doctor.
While still at medical school, Dr. Buteyko had specialized in the study of hypertension [high blood pressure]. Ironically, Dr. Buteyko himself developed a severe form of this, in his case, lethal disease. The hospital whose staff he had joined had the best medication available for the treatment of this illness. Dr. Buteyko began treating himself with these drugs but soon recognized that his condition only worsened. In the fall of 1952, his health had deteriorated to such a degree that it was not likely he would live for more than a couple of months.
Konstantin Buteyko's Monumental Discovery
K.P. Buteyko M.D.
Dr. Buteyko was a man of great strength and fortitude who, despite tremendous pain, continued
working. One evening during his night shift at the hospital, he was alone in a room, standing in front of
a window looking up at a star filled sky. His mind was occupied with one question: What is the cause of
my disease? As many renowned doctors of the past, Dr. Buteyko believed that it was impossible to cure
a disease without knowing its cause. Suddenly, a blinding light flashed outside and he lowered his gaze
to shield his eyes. Having been dazzled by the flash and looking downward to regain his vision, he
noticed something that immediately caught his attention. He observed his chest and stomack moving a
great deal as he was breathing. In the midst of his impending demise, and in great pain, he, nevertheless, maintained his lifelong habit of being a keen observer of natural phenomena.
His mind was drawn to his heavy breathing and at that moment, he considered an idea that had seemed
almost absurd before: could it be that his heavy breathing was not the result of his disease but the cause of it?
Ever the indefatigable scientist, he immediately began experimenting on himself. First, he increased his breathing. As a result, his pain increased. Second, he decreased his breathing. Remarkably, his pain began to subside! This was a pivotal moment for Dr. Buteyko, one that would change the course of his life. He was far from having all the answers, but he began to understand what questions were important to ask and consider.
This event inspired Dr. Buteyko to head straight for the pulmonological department of the hospital where he found a pale man suffocating from an asthma attack. Buteyko tried his technique with the patient and both were surprised by the nearly instant success. After a few minutes of reduced breathing, the patient was able to breathe much better and his face regained some color. The asthma attack was gone.
Dr. Buteyko proceeded to try the method on many other patients at his hospital. He discovered the result was consistent for people suffering from various diseases. When they increased their breathing, their symptoms became worse. When they reduced their breathing, their symptoms eased and their health improved. By modifying breathing patterns, Dr. Buteyko was able to help many patients; he also cured his own disease and regained health.
Dr. Buteyko was very excited by his discovery and wanted to tell all his friends and colleagues about it. In his youthful exuberance, full of enthusiasm, he went to his academic and clinical supervisor and explained his remarkable discovery to him. He listened and immediately discounted what Konstantin discovered because it went so far against what doctors were taught to believe. He told Konstantin to forget all about this "discovery" and strongly urged him to abandon his pursuit of presenting this to medical journals or other medical facilities. His discovery was an anathema to such an extent, that his friends seriously feared he would be sentenced to and incarcerated in a mental institution.
Dr. Buteyko with Ludmila Buteyko (right)
It was during this time of personal trial that Dr. Buteyko compared the path of his discovery to that of Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis of Hungary. Dr. Semmelweis, while practicing at the General Hospital in Vienna, Austria (1847), discovered that the spread of septicemia could be radically reduced by the simple act of hand-washing. The mortality rate of infants and mothers was incredibly high and the method of washing hands with bleach and lime prior to surgery reduced the rate by a large percentage. At that time, diseases were attributed to many different and unique causes. Semmelweis' hypothesis, that there was only one cause for septicemia, seemed too simple and was therefore discredited and heavily ridiculed. After many years of protesting this unfair treatment and many angry letters sent to other doctors, Semmelweis was confined to a mental asylum. Some sources say that he ran from that institution, went to the morgue of his hospital and in front of dumbfounded students cut his finger and put it into a corpse. Soon thereafter, he died of septicemia. 50 years later, Louis Pasteur confirmed Semmelweis's theories by developing the germ theory: I saw microbes, he said, but Semmelweis was the one who discovered them.
Similar to Semmelweis, Buteyko came to the conclusion that many health issues, which are considered to be unique diseases by the medical community, are a collection of symptoms of one disease - hyperventilation. Hyperventilation leads to the development of asthma, hypertension, allergies, even cancer… more than a hundred diseases in all, the most common ones in today's world. Dr.Buteyko realized that these diseases can be cured by reducing one's breathing. It was just too simple for other doctors to accept!
Facing ridicule and a potential incarceration for revealing his new method was a terrible blow to Dr. Buteyko. He realized he would have to keep
the discovery quiet in order to save himself. The only way his work could possibly gain credibility was if he could collect substantial data to support his theory. At this time, in 1952, a new Academy of Science was developing in Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, with abundant funding available for scientific laboratories and clinics. It was a bitter decision for Dr. Buteyko to leave an elite hospital in the most culturally sophisticated city of Soviet Union and move to Siberia, far away from the launch of his brilliant career. However, he saw no other way to collect and assemble the data necessary to raise awareness for his revolutionary discovery.
Once he established himself at the Siberian clinical laboratory, Dr. Buteyko began treating the seriously ill, especially those with asthma. As he gained insight and experience, his reputation grew exponentially. Profoundly sick people were carried into his laboratory and then would miraculously walk out of it on their own. People who were extremely ill traveled great distances to be treated by him and he was besieged with hundreds of letters on a daily basis from people requesting his help.
Dr. Buteyko tried to help anyone who needed his help without any consideration for his own benefit. Often, when his patients were lacking money for transportation or accommodation, Dr. Buteyko shared his own, at that time, very modest resources with them. Articles reporting on Dr.Buteyko's brilliant success stories appeared in the national press and he became known far and wide for his altruistic nature and treatments that were effective in cases where others failed.
This attention generated envy among Buteyko's peers. One doctor was developing a powder that
eased asthma symptoms. Dr. Buteyko was not only offering an ease, but an actual cure for asthma,
and this, of course, was more appealing. Another example was Konstantin's main supervisor at the
Academy. He was a surgeon whose approach to asthma had been to remove the afflicted lung, treat
it, and then put it back into the body. Although the effectiveness of this technique was insignificant,
he had hoped this work would eventually earn him a Nobel Prize. Dr. Buteyko's discovery and the
simplicity of his method was a threat for these and many other medical professionals and put their
livelihood at risk. This surgeon gathered a group of doctors and began a campaign to sabotage Dr.
Buteyko's work. Dr. Buteyko's laboratory, along with a lot of very expensive medical equipment,
which he had acquired abroad (and some of which he designed himself), was destroyed. His staff was dismissed. His data was compromised.
This took place in 1968, while Konstantin was away on a business trip. He cut the trip short and returned immediately. When he entered the room that was once his sophisticated laboratory, his dark hair started to turn grey. On to top of all this, Dr. Buteyko received multiple death threats, the purpose of which was to intimidate him into stopping his work. He was once poisoned and there was also a mob style automobile crash arranged to kill him. He survived all of these attempts.
Dr. Buteyko's life was in serious danger and in the midst of it he, once again, stepped back, engaged his analytical side and contrived a means of survival. Among the hundreds of applicants who begged and pleaded to be treated by him, there were some influential individuals. He strategically selected to treat a few of these powerful people, who, because of their full recovery back to health, agreed to protect him to a certain extent. This was the sole reason Dr. Buteyko was able to continue his work and life in Soviet Russia.
Konstantin was offered an opportunity to practice his treatment in space medicine. At first, it seemed like a beneficial way to advance his work but it soon became apparent that this job would drastically limit his scope of influence. This was during the Cold War of the late 50s and with the space race between Russia and the United States, agreeing to take this position would be like an automatic swearing to secrecy. This job would have assured him financial security, but Dr. Buteyko returned to his altruistic desires to help the numerous people in need of his treatment, rather than have it sequestered for an elite few.
Konstantin and Ludmila Buteyko, and Andrey Novozhilov
For almost 20 years, Konstantin was officially unemployed and his name was on the media black list. At that time, private practice was not legal in the Soviet Union, but Dr. Buteyko continued helping people privately on a donation basis. The 80s brought some relief for Buteyko. In 1981, the second official trial of his method took place in Moscow Medical Academy, in the department for asthmatic children. The positive results of the treatment were between 94 and 96 percent. In 1983, twenty one years after his application, he received a patent with a classification of "top secret" for his discovery and the method of treatment. In 1985, the Ministry of Public Health of Russia issued instructions and recommendations to all medical professionals to treat patients with the Buteyko breathing method; however, those instructions were never implemented. In 1987, at the very beginning of the Perestroika, Dr.Buteyko was finally allowed to establish his own clinic in Moscow. Later, it became known as Clinica Buteyko.
Dr. Buteyko compared breathing to atomic energy: from his perspective, the awesome power of breathing was capable of destroying health very quickly as well as rebuilding it extraordinary fast. Many people suffering from asthma, allergies, hypertension, kidney problems, cardio, gastrological problems, immune deficiency and many other serious health conditions were healed at Clinica Buteyko. Konstantin Buteyko also started working with people who were exposed to radiation
during the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. An official trial regarding this work took place in 1990 in Kiev, Ukraine, at the National Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine. The result: 82 percent of patients significantly improved their health. In 1991, another official trial of the Buteyko method took place. This time, Buteyko's team worked with AIDS patients at the Institute of Epidemiology (Kiev). This work demonstrated positive results with no negative side-effects. That year, the same Institute conducted another trial with hepatitis and liver hepatocirrhosis patients. Dr. Buteyko's Breathing Normalization method proved to be very effective and was officially recommended for use on patients with such problems.
Dr. Buteyko's Approach and Spirituality
Dr.Buteyko and his students
From the point of view of Konstantin Buteyko, a human body is "the perfect machine." As many famous doctors and scientists have done, he used his own body and mind to experiment with his method. Konstantin practiced his method and followed a particular lifestyle that promotes physical and mental health. In the final period of his life, Buteyko came to the conclusion that a reduction of breathing leads to clarity of mind, inner peace, and calmness. Additionally, he found out that it promotes intuition, telepathy and other types of extrasensory perception. Konstantin started his career as a talented, yet regular medical doctor, but, by the end of his life, he developed qualities of an advanced spiritual practitioner. He was known for being able to read people's thoughts, predicting the future, and many other extraordinary abilities. He hardly slept at all, was able to exist without food for 50 days at a time, and was capable of holding his breath after an exhalation for several minutes.
During the final part of his life, the first questionDr. Buteyko would ask his patients was, "Do you believe in God?" He was equally accepting of the answers "yes" and "no" but preferred not to give his time to people who answered "I am not sure." What Buteyko found was that the door to an individual's personal evolution could be opened through breathing. In a way, this was not a new idea: this principal was known and understood in many ancient cultures. One of the goals of Indian yoga, for example Pranayama, is to breathe less. A fundamental meditation in Tibetan Buddhism, which is called Shine (Peace), train the meditator to switch from heavy to shallow breathing. Japanese samurais had another interesting tradition: they would put a feather under one's nose and breathe on it. If the feather moved, that person would be dismissed from being a samurai. Russian Orthodox Saints recommended to their disciples to reduce breathing during prayer. They believed this would bring them closer to the divine.
About our civilization
Dr.Buteyko with the doctors
In the end of his life Buteyko also spent time studying various ancient civilizations and trying to find the answer to one question: Why did they fall? The reason he was occupied with this question was simple. Dr. Buteyko's highly analytical mind was telling him that our civilization was also dying, and he was trying to find a solution to prevent this process.
That's how Dr. Buteyko came to this conclusion: he found out that the majority of the population hyperventilates (to varying degrees) continually in their daily lives. This removes the beneficial and necessary CO2 from our system, and thus creates a less effective bond of the oxygen molecule with the hemoglobin in the blood. Paradoxically, oxygen is actually reduced in many organs, including the brain. When the brain does not receive enough oxygen, its intellectual function gradually becomes impaired. That means that a person loses his ability to think systematically or as K. Buteyko put it, "in terms of cause and effect." The person's thinking becomes more computer-like: he can accumulate a lot of information but is only capable of processing it within a limited frame. In daily life, this is often manifested when a person is fully engaged with his endless tasks, but does not have time to think about the meaning of his life or the future of our planet or civilization. As the result of hyperventilation, on the psychological level people literally become narrow-minded and on the physical level the become much weaker. Dr. Buteyko believed that if our civilization does not change its breathing, it's destined to die just as many other civilizations before it did.
Some concepts of Dr. Buteyko
Why do people hyperventilate? In the early part of life formation on earth, the carbon dioxide content in our atmosphere was 70 percent and higher and the oxygen content was less than one percent. It was similar to the conditions inside a womb, which has a high level of carbon dioxide and a low level of oxygen. As plant life increased and developed, the balance of CO2 and oxygen shifted and oxygen became the dominant gas in our atmosphere (Presently it is about 21 percent oxygen and less than one percent carbon dioxide). Buteyko assumed that many biological species were not able to adjust to this change and became extinct (possibly, dinosaurs). Humans survived by being able to adjust to these gradual changes; however, our bodies were not ideally created for the type of the atmosphere that surrounds our planet.
Coming back to the present, Dr. Buteyko believed that the modern lifestyle, specifically the sedentary lifestyle, protein rich foods, and the gradual loss of spiritual practices compromised our breathing further and, by extension, our physical and mental health. In today's world, on average people consume five to ten times more air than their bodies need. Ongoing research at Clinica Buteyko Moscow
indicates that people's breathing on the whole is worsening.
The End of Dr.Buteyko's life
In 2003, an average lifespan for men in Russia was between fifty and sixty years. Konstantin was eighty years old and active despite the damage caused to his life force by the many attempts to kill him. In 1998, he became a victim of a street assault, which seriously impacted his health. In Novosibirsk, when Konstantin was walking in the city at night, he was surrounded by three men who brutally attacked the elderly doctor. They used heavy metal bars and directed them at his head. When they thought that Konstantin was dead, they threw his body away on the snow (it was a cold Siberian night). When he was found, doctors were astonished that he survived; however, thought that there were very little chance he would live. He lived and worked for another four years.
During this time, he traveled great deal because his method gradually began to spread around the world. He was invited to England to treat Prince Charles who was suffering from allergies. Konstantin and his wife Ludmila Buteyko successfully cured the Prince's problem. They also visited Germany, New Zealand, and other countries educating people about his method.
A day before Konstantin passed away, he asked his wife Ludmila to take him to a hospital. She was surprised given that he was feeling well but followed her husband's request. Doctors at the hospital examined Konstantin and came to the conclusion that there was nothing wrong with him, in fact, they happily announced to Ludmila that she should expect him to live another ten or twenty years.
And yet he passed away the next day. Why? Ludmila's answer is this: "By that time, he did everything he could to offer the people of this planet a very valuable knowledge that could have saved the lives of many as well as the life of the whole civilization. Unfortunately, his offer was not fully accepted due to the unwillingness to change, to go beyond the comfort of habitual thinking. He respected this choice; however, he felt that his mission or his life on Earth was completed. On May 2nd 2003, on a very auspicious day in Orthodox Christianity, Konstantin looked at Ludmila, his partner and his kindred spirit, smiled, and then turned to his right side and effortlessly and painlessly left his body.
by Sasha Yakovleva-Fredricksen
Special Thanks to David Wiebe, Susan Lipkins and Tusha Yakovleva
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Two hundred years ago asthma was considered a mild ailment. Having asthma generally meant having a
long life free of other diseases. However, no one could explain how asthma prevented other ailments or
why asthmatics lived longer than others. Today, we know that asthma is not an ordinary disease.
Bronchospasm, the main component of asthma, acts as a protective mechanism, helping to maintain
biological constants and important functions at near normal levels.
We have also learned that asthma or bronchospasm cannot exist unless the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) level
in the lungs is abnormally low. Since the metabolic and immune systems can function correctly only if
the CO2 level is normal, the limit of the asthmatic's CO2 levelprotects him or her and allows for a long
and healthy life. It is this powerful defense mechanism that provides the asthmatic with an improved
biological system. Evidently, bronchospasm is one way the organism has adapted to its environment.
Modern drug treatment for asthma is aimed at neutralizing this protective mechanism. The organism then fights back again and again with more intensive bronchospasms leading to a rapid deterioration of the asthma from drug treatment. It is not possible to cure asthma by removing a protective mechanism like broncospasm. Only when the condition responsible for the bronchospasm is removed, can asthma be reversed.
(This is the "Foreword by K. P. Buteyko" in the book Asthma Cure Manual, by Dr. A. Novozhilov, 2009 version. This book is available in our e-store in download and the paper formats.)
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Konstantin and Ludmila Buteyko and students
Thirty-eight years ago, I announced that a great number of widespread diseases triggered by the lifestyle of our civilization (i.e., bronchial and vasomotor spasms, allergic reactions, etc) have a common cause: hyperventilation (excessive breathing). I realized that decreasing and thus normalizing the air intake can lead to an individual's recovery. Scientific studies, as well as the basic laws of physiology, biochemistry, and biology have confirmed this hypothesis. Here are the general postulates of my theory:
When an excessive amount of air is consumed, a large amount of carbon dioxide is removed from the organism, consequently reducing the CO2 content of the lungs, blood, and tissue cells. A hyperventilation caused CO2 deficiency produces pH alkaline shifts in the blood and tissue cells. The pH shifts interfere with all protein (about 1000 in all) and vitamin (about 20) activity, altering the metabolic processes. Therefore, when the pH level reaches the value of 8, the metabolic disorders can cause death.
A CO2 deficiency also causes spasms in the smooth muscles of the bronchi, cerebral and circulatory vessels, intestines, biliary ducts, and other organs. In the late 19th century, Bronislav Verigo, a Russian scientist from Perm, discovered a peculiar relationship: when CO2 diminishes from the blood, oxygen binds with hemoglobin and impairs the transport of oxygen to the brain, heart, kidneys, and other organs. In other words, the deeper the breathing, the less oxygen reaches vital organs in the body. This statement forms the basis of my discovery, one that has gone underappreciated until now. This dependency, presented by Verigo, was suppressed and ignored. At the same time, Christian Bohr, a Swedish scientist, made a similar discovery. Later on, this became known as the Bohr effect.
Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) in the brain caused by deep breathing triggers intense bronchial and cardiac spasms. Hypoxia in vital organs is counter-balanced by the rise in arterial tension (artery hypertension), enhances blood circulation and provides the organs with blood. Oxygen starvation, when combined with hyperventilation, causes a false feeling of air deficiency, excites the respiratory center, intensifies breathing, and contributes to the progression of disease.
A CO2 deficiency in the nerve cells excites all of the structures in the nervous system, thus making the process of breathing even more intense. As a result, oxygen starvation in nerve cells, in combination with metabolic malfunctions and an over-excited nervous system, brings about mental disorders, destroys the nervous system (sclerosis of cerebral vessels) and, finally, causes a deterioration of an individual's physical and mental health.
Disorders brought about by deep breathing are aggravated by factors such as environmental pollution, pesticides and other chemicals that are found in nutritional products. If we assume this, then the basic principles of Western medicine, the remedial and preventative measures that commonly use deep-breathing methods just add to the development of diseases. Strenuous exercise and drugs, which relax the bronchi and blood vessels (thus increasing the removal of CO2 from the body), do not improve a patient's condition, but only worsen it.
This is precisely why diseases triggered by the modern environment go untreated and are so widespread. The discovery of the fact that the main cause of such diseases is hyperventilation proves (through experiments) the fallacy of the existing remedial methods and principles.
A hyperventilation test serves as decisive evidence that this method is effective. For example, a patient is offered to deepen his breathing and evaluate the result of the well know command, "Take a deep breath." Within a few seconds or minutes, this deep breathing test will trigger or increase pathological symptoms. Meanwhile, a reduction of the depth of respiration will remove the symptoms almost at the same rate. Thus, the only effective principle for prevention and treatment is to reduce the depth of breathing, thus allowing normal respiratory function to be restored.
This is the basis for the development of volitional control of hyperventilation. The essence of the technique is for a patient, through willfulness and diligence, to lessen his depth of breathing by relaxing the respiratory muscles until he feels a slight air deficit. Adults and children over three years old can use this method. The method can also be used in obstetrics for expecting mothers and their newborns to teach children healthy physiological principles.
This theory is also directly applicable to space medicine, surgery (preparation for surgical intervention), pedagogy, training of singers and athletes and more. Medicine, just like other branches of science, requires a comprehensive restructuring. The author considers his ideas, along with other progressive approaches, which have been ignored, as a foundation for the medicine of the future. The top priority is to provide people with information about this method in order to stop the propaganda of deep breathing in the mass media and to remove deep breathing exercises from health care. The method developed by the author will succeed when every human being realizes that his inborn greediness (which applies to breathing) is the cause of diseases and disasters.
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Articles Regarding Buteyko Medical Trials
Articles Regarding Buteyko Medical Trials
"Investigating the Claims of Konstantin Buteyko, M.D., Ph.D.: The Relationship of Breath Holding Time to End
Tidal CO2 and Other Proposed Measures of Dysfunctional Breathing."
Rosabla Courtney and Marc Cohen
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2008), 14 (2): 115-123.
"British Guideline on the Management of Asthma."
British Thoracic Society & Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network
(2008) Guideline No. 101. Edinburgh:SIGN.
"Complementary Therapy use by Patients and Parents of Children with Asthma and the Implications for NHS
Care: a Qualitative Study.”
Shaw, Alison, Thompson, Elizabeth A., Sharp, Debbie
BMC Health Services Research (2006), 6:76.
“Buteyko Breathing Technique for Asthma: an Effective Intervention.”
McHugh, Patrick, Aitcheson, Fergus, Duncan, Bruce, and Frank Houghton
The New Zealand Medical Journal (2003), 116(1187).
“Effect of Two Breathing Exercises (Buteyko and Pranayama) in Asthma: a Randomised Controlled Trial.”
S. Cooper, J. Oborne, S Newton, V Harrison, C Thompson, S Lewis, and A Tattersfield.
Thorax (2003), 58(8): 674–679.
“A Clinical Trial of the Buteyko Breathing Technique in Asthma as Taught by a Video.”
A. J. Opat,, M. M. Cohen , M. J. Bailey, and M. J. Abramson
Journal of Asthma (2000), 37(7): 557-564.
“Buteyko Breathing Techniques in Asthma: A Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial.”
Bowler, Simon D., Green, Amanda, and Charles A Mitchell
Medical Journal of Australia (1998), 169: 575-578.